Validity & Reliability
There are two dimensions of situation-perception which relate directly to the appraisals of two of our most recent studies; coping potential and goal-relevance. Our approach using cognitive appraisal questionnaire tools involves using statistical methods to evaluate the quality of the questionnaire including reliability and validity. Our software uses four criterions to determine the extent to which cognitive questionnaire tools measure what they claim to measure.
- Content Validity – Refers to the extent to which an Assessdo questionnaire covers all of the important aspects of the construct being measured. For example, one of such studies was designed to measure coping potential of student athletes participating at basketball camps. The questionnaire included questions that covered different aspects of coping styles, such as a) problem-focused coping in which the participants had some control over the situation that was causing them stress; b) emotion-focused coping in which the participants could change the way they responded to their stress. Content validity is usually assessed by expert research data or by comparing the questionnaires to a comprehensive framework.
- Construct Validity – Refers to the degree to which a questionnaire measures the underlying construct or theoretical concept it is intended to measure. For example, we did a study measuring coping mechanisms of student athletes participating in basketball camps. We provided a questionnaire including questions that showed a positive correlation with measures of adaptive coping mechanisms (i.e. deep breathing, meditation, positive thoughts, journaling, and exercise) and a negative correlation with measures of maladaptive coping mechanisms (i.e. negative thoughts, isolation, denying the problem, anger outbursts, and self-harm). Construct validity is usually assessed by examining the pattern of correlations between the questionnaires and other measures of related or unrelated constructs.
- Concurrent Validity – Refers to the degree to which a questionnaire correlates with an external criterion measured at the same time. For example, we did a cognitive test designed to predict goal relevance of students in an EBD Special Education class. Its concurrent validity would be assessed by comparing the questionnaire results to the current grades of the students.
- Predictive Validity – Refers to the degree to which a questionnaire predicts an external criterion measured in the future. Our cognitive questionnaire system is designed to predict the risk of constructs by comparing questionnaire scores to the frequency of constructs.